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Encyclopedia of Psychology Alan E. Kazdin, PhD, Editor-in-Chief

PERSONALITY PSYCHOLOGY: Methods of Study
Observer-Based Assessments
A series of studies beginning in the 1920s has been devoted to compiling the full domain of ordinary language trait-descriptors and examining the structure revealed by their co-occurrent usage by observers in describing persons. This extended research program has identified at least five major bipolar personality dimensions (i.e., the “Big Five” factors): extraversion (e.g.. outgoing versus reserved); agreeableness (e.g., sympathetic versus fault-finding), conscientiousness (e.g., organized action versus careless); emotional stability (e.g., calm versus anxious): and openness (e.g., imaginative versus the commonplace).

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