PARENT-CHILD RELATIONSHIP : Adulthood
...The experience of emotional closeness and positive sentiment between parents and their adult children is independent of direct contact or interaction with one another and remains intact over time and distance. This is the case particularly between mothers and daughters whose affectional ties are closest, followed, in descending order, by those in father-daughter, mother-son, and father-son dyads.
Family Solidarity. According to this theory, cohesion among family members is reflected in six forms of solidarity: associational, the frequency and patterns of interaction: affectual, demonstrating the type and degree of positive sentiments: consensual, signifying agreement on values, beliefs, and attitudes: functional, referring to exchange of resources and assistance: normative, implying commitment to family roles and obligations: and structural, opportunities for interaction provided by the number and type of family relationships.