NEWELL, ALLEN (1927-1992), American cognitive psychologist and computer scientist.
...He served as chair of the committee that monitored the research in computer speech recognition sponsored by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA)
NEWTON, ISAAC (1642-1727).
English natural philosopher and mathematician.
...But in his more developed theory of motion, he avoided speculation. Instead, he presupposed the existence of gravitational force (“action at a distance”), showing how gravity worked rather than what gravity was. He thus was one of the first to recognize that scientific claims may be limited in scope and dependent on otherwise unverifiable foundations.
...Newton’s mechanics is a deterministic system, that is, it rests upon interrelated laws capable of generating complex phenomena. It is not a mechanistic, “push-pull” account, in which one event causes another, which in turn causes a further event, and so on. There is no strict separation of cause and effect; instead, a continuous “dance” of dynamic events is unified by deterministic laws. Some psychological systems manifest a similar character, for example, Simon’s account of problem solving, James Gibson’s “ecological” approach to perception, and recent connectionist theories. Such examples suggest that Newton will continue to serve as a model of science for psychology.