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Encyclopedia of Psychology Alan E. Kazdin, PhD, Editor-in-Chief

NEUROSCIENCE
Historical Considerations
...A major development since the mid-1980s has been the evolving appreciation of the complexity of the computations that can be performed by individual neurons. This has resulted from the description of membrane events that are exceedingly complex in their time courses and often have multifaceted conditional dependencies related to other membrane events.

Neuroscience and Behavioral Pathologies

...The complexity of brain-behavior relationships is impressively evident in the arena of psychiatric disorders. These disorders are often readily perceived at the behavioral level, but they are refractory to satisfactory diagnosis, presumably because of the current near-total reliance on behavioral signs. Although neuroscience knowledge about these disorders is limited, many of them are now commonly viewed as brain-based disorders for which biological treatments are being sought. Currently, both behavioral and pharmacological treatments are used, but it is clear that for major disorders, such as depression and schizophrenia, pharmacological treatments are potent, although not perfectly targeted. These clinical problems bring into focus the profound interdependence of neuroscientific and psychological conceptualizations of brain-behavior systems.

Заказ оформлен...

The Future of Neuroscience

...Mental illnesses, such as schizophrenia and affective disorders, clearly raise issues that span the spectrum from molecular pharmacology to behavioral assessment. It appears that future advances will depend upon the combination, perhaps within individual research programs, of the best of behavioral, neural systems. arid molecular approaches.

Исполнители обозначены...

However, there are specific contributions that can be made by neuroscience that may substantially hasten and enrich descriptions and understanding of behavior. These contributions include ( I) dissociations of normally co-occurring behaviors or capabilities by brain damage or pharmacological manipulation, revealing potentially dissociable components of an apparently unitary behavior; (2) characterizations of brain status that predict which of many possible responses to a particular environmental input will actually occur, permitting predictions about behavior and its antecedent conditions that cannot be made on the basis of behavioral observations alone; (3) determination of the biological correlates of behavioral traits that can help independently classify subjects with regard to individual differences in behaviors.

Задачи поставлены...

Tags: encyclopedia of psychology, Поведение
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