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Encyclopedia of Psychology Alan E. Kazdin, PhD, Editor-in-Chief

MIGRANTS
...During the first half of the twentieth century the predominant mental health disorders for migrants (primarily Europeans) were identified as paranoid reactions with trends of persecution and affective disorders with a high incidence of unipolar depression and anxiety and paranoid schizophrenia. Recent studies have found contemporary problems to be major depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and generalized psychological difficulties (Bemak & Greenberg, 1994; Kinzie, 1993; Marsella, Freidman, & Spain, 1993)

...

A review of major findings suggested that predictors of psychological distress for migrants include older age (for Vietnamese, Bosnians, Southeast Asian refugees, and Asian immigrants): losing a spouse, being divorced, or being unmarried and low socioeconomic status, unemployment, and less education.

плохо быть старым, бедным, одиноким, глупым и безработным...

ну не гениальное открытие?

MILES, WALTER RICHARD (1885-1978). American experimental psychologist.

On Dodge’s recommendation, Miles followed him to the Carnegie Laboratory and remained in Boston from 1914 to 1922. While there, Miles completed research on the effects of alcohol and reduced food intake on behavior and completed a war project on gas mask design. In 1922, Lewis Terman asked him to head the psychology laboratory at Stanford University, which he did for a decade. He then returned east to Yale’s newly founded Institute of Human Relations, where he rejoined Dodge: Miles remained at Yale from I932 until his retirement in 1952. He then spent 3 years as visiting professor at the University of Istanbul and another 8 years (1957-1965) as scientific director of the submarine base in New London, Connecticut.

дитя войны...

He also directed an ongoing series of research projects known collectively as the Stanford Later Maturity Study, one of the earliest systematic attempts to study the effects of aging on perceptual, motor, and cognitive skills. He found that although most skills declined with age, large individual variation occurred, and one fourth of subjects over the age of 70 scored as well as middle-aged adults.

MILGRAM, STANLEY (1933-1984). American social psychologist. Stanley Milgram was one of the most inventive and controversial social scientists of the second half of the twentieth century. He created a number of highly original research paradigms, and his work became controversial because of his experiments on obedience to authority. The latter revealed that a majority of normal adults would inflict severe punishment in the form of as much as 450 volts of electric shock on an innocent victim at the bidding of a scientific authority. Those experiments would create alterations in some basic assumptions about human nature-that it doesn’t take evil or deranged persons to act destructively against innocent human beings-and comprise one of a handful of ethically questionable experiments that led to the formalization of procedures for the protection of human research subjects by the U.S. government.

Although both the Norwegian and French participants were responsive to the experimental variations he built into the general procedure judging which of a pair of acoustic tones was longer – overall the Norwegians showed a higher rate of conformity to a phantom majority than did the French subjects. This was an important study because, as Milgram put it, “It [was] the first attempt to study national characteristics by the direct, experimental assessment of the behavior of two national groups.”

Via his experiments, which invariably focused on situational rather than dispositional determinants, Milgram helped maintain the dominance of situationism as the hallmark of mainstream North American social psychology

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