papalagi (papalagi) wrote,

Encyclopedia of Psychology Alan E. Kazdin, PhD, Editor-in-Chief

MEMORY: Brain Systems
Short-Term Memory
...Recent work suggests that an adjacent area of prefrontal cortex is critical for short-term memory of objects (i.e., what they are: Goldman-Rakic, 1992). Mishkin, Ungerleider, and Macko (1983)i dentified two visual streams of information flowing from the primary occipital visual region: a ventral stream ending in the anterior temporal lobe cortex concerned with object identification, and a dorsal stream ending in parietal cortex more concerned with object location in space.

These two regions are closely interconnected with the prefrontal short-term object and location memory regions, respectively.

ну да ну да... нет «что» без «где»... а потом и «чье» подтянется...

Basic Associative Memory.

Basic associative learning involves forming associations between stimuli or between stimuli and responses. The two major categories are classical (or Pavlovian) conditioning and instrumental learning. Classical conditioning is most generally defined as a procedure by which an experimenter presents participants with stimuli that occur in some prearranged relationship and measures changes in responding to one of them. The conditioned stimulus (CS) typically is paired with, and precedes, the unconditioned stimulus (US). The conditioned stimulus does not elicit the response to be learned before training and the unconditioned stimulus reliably elicits a readily measured response, the reflex or unconditioned response (UR). Changes in participants’ behavior to the conditioned stimulus over the course of training, the conditioned response (CR). reflects associative learning. In order for significant learning to occur, contiguity of conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus, per se, is not sufficient; there must also be a significant contingency of occurrence between the two events. Associatively produced changes in participants’ behavior are said to reflect their learning about the causal texture of the environment.

The defining feature of instrumental learning is that the behavior of the organism is instrumental in determining the outcome of the situation.

Tags: encyclopedia of psychology

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