LADD, GEORGE TRUMBULL (1842-1921), American psychologist.
...Ladd believed, first, that the self is active: second, that consciousness has an active function: third, that the mind has a purpose; and fourth, that the resulting psychology has a useful or practical value. As a functional psychologist, Ladd held that introspection was the primary method of study and analysis. He was convinced that ideas and ideals were an extraphysical reality and were capable of operating according to laws of their own.
LADD-FRANKLIN, CHRISTINE (I847-1930). American psychologist, logician, and mathematician.
...Although she completed all the requirements for a Ph.D. in mathematics and logic during her four years of study (1878-1882). Hopkins would not award the degree to Ladd because she was a woman but did so belatedly in 1926. Her alma mater Vassar College awarded her an honorary LL.D. in 1887.
...Arguing that the Hering and the Helmholtz theories were not, in fact, contradictory but true when viewed as pertaining to two different stages of the visual process, Ladd-Franklin added a third theoretical component that she viewed as her original contribution, the notion of the evolutionary development of the color sense.
...While by the end of her lifetime, Ladd-Franklin had achieved international recognition as an authority in vision and color theory, today the Ladd-Franklin theory of color vision does not typically get included in contemporary textbook discussions of its predecessors-the rival theories of Hering and Helmholtz.
One can only speculate about whether this erasure of the Ladd-Franklin theory is linked to the fact that it was proposed by a woman. What is more certain is that despite Ladd-Franklin’s acknowledged intellectual brilliance and scholarly productivity, because she was a woman and moreover a married one, her opportunities for establishing an academic career were meager, and she never held a regular position.
ну как же... она ж не из нашего курятника!
Scarborough, E., & Furumoto. L. (1987). Untold lives: The first generation of American women psychologists. New York Columbia University Press. Contains a chapter on Ladd-Franklin’s protest to Cornell psychologist E. B. Titchener regarding the exclusion of women from the Society of Experimentalists, an elite club for experimental psychologists that he founded in 1904.
LA METTRIE, JULIEN OFFRAY DE (1709-1751). French physician.
...L’Homme machine puts these points in a more popular and polemical manner. Matter is capable of feeling as well as motion. To prove that the active principle and sensitive faculty reside in bodily matter, La Mettrie cites instances of animal parts moving after death. The soul is “an empty word” signifying only “that part in us that thinks.”
... Human mental superiority is the culmination of an evolutionary process in which “the rough diamond of our mind has been polished.”