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Encyclopedia of Psychology Alan E. Kazdin, PhD, Editor-in-Chief

HOUINGWORTH, HARRY L. (1880-1956). American psychologist.

...The most important applied investigation in Hollingworth‘s career was one of the first studies he undertook after receiving his doctorate. It was a study in 1911 on the effects of caffeine on mental processes and behavior in humans, and it was contracted for by the Coca Cola Company in preparation for the legal defense of their beverage in a suit initiated by the federal government.

When published, Hollingworth’s caffeine studies drew rave reviews. Arguably, no behavioral studies of such comprehensiveness and scientific control had ever been conducted. The report was praised not only for the valuable findings on caffeine, but also for the sophistication of the experimental design. It was frequently cited in the pharmacological literature and was described as a model of good research. It is still cited in current scientific literature.

In a series of studies undertaken in the 1930s for the Beech Nut Company, he concluded that the relaxation gained from chewing gum was because the chewing redintegrated the relaxation associated with chewing at mealtime.

HOLT, EDWIN BISSELL (1873-1946). American psychologist-philosopher.

...In 1901 he completed a doctorate at Harvard, studying under William James and Hugo Muensterberg.

In his later writings, James had interpreted consciousness as a set of functional relations between a person’s nervous system and the objects of which the person is aware. Holt’s Concept of Consciousness (London, 1914) drew on this conception in rejecting the dualist view that the mind copies the object of awareness in the form of a private mental representation. Instead, Holt said, cognition is an observable process of adjustment to an object whereby one’s behavior has “objective reference” to it. In this motor theory of consciousness, mind inheres not in the nervous system but rather in outward behavioral relations.

HOMELESSNESS

Characteristically, the term homeless means without a home. Thus, for our purposes, there are three main groups of homeless, and they can be conceptualized as creating a continuum from marginally housed to living on the streets:

1. Displaced people-individuals who are not the primary tenants of a domicile that they share (i.e., doubled-up).

2. Sheltered people-individuals who take residence in some sort of semi-institutional setting (e.g., shelter. church, hospital, jail, etc.).

3. Street people-individuals who are living on the streets and take residence in public places not intended for such a purpose (e.g., parking garages, alleyways, malls, parks, etc.).

Unlike most men who are on the street alone, many women are homeless with their children. Reportedly, at least 38% of the homeless are children and their families, usually single mothers (Children’s Defense Fund, 1988; National Network of Runaway and Youth Services, 1985). Although motherhood is not a cause of homelessness. the chances of homeless mothers finding gainful employment are slimmer than for single women, which makes it more difficult for them to exit the streets.

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