papalagi (papalagi) wrote,

Howard Earl Gardner (1943-) Frames of Mind (1983-2011) The Theory of Multiple Intelligences

Introduction to the Tenth-Anniversary Edition (1993)

With such considerations in mind, I have formulated a definition ofwhat I call an “intelligence.” An intelligence is the ability to solve problems, or to create products, that are valued within one or more cultural settings—a definition that says nothing about either the sources of these abilities or the proper means of “testing” them.

The first generation of psychologists of intelligence, such as Charles Spearman (1927) and Lewis Terman (1975), tended to believe that intelligence was best conceptualized as a single general capacity for conceptualization and problem solving. They sought to demonstrate that a group of scores on tests reflected a single underlying factor of “general intelligence.” It was probably inevitable that this contention would be challenged; and, over the years, such psychologists as L. L. Thurstone (1960) and J. P. Guilford (1967) argued for the existence of a number of factors, or components, of intelligence.

According to the distributed view, however, one’s intelligence inheres as much in the artifacts and individuals that surround one as in one’s own skull. My intelligence does not stop at my skin; rather, it encompasses my tools (paper, pencil, computer), my notational memory (contained in files, notebooks, journals), and my network of associates (office mates, professional colleagues, others whom I can phone or to whom I can dispatch electronic messages). A forthcoming book, entitled Distributed Cognition, sets forth the principal principles of a distributed view (Salomon, in press); see also the useful book Perspectives on Socially Shared Cognition, authored by Lauren Resnick and her colleagues (1991).
Tags: Гарднер

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