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Encyclopedia of Psychology Alan E. Kazdin, PhD, Editor-in-Chief

FRANCE

Lacan wished to differentiate the transmission of psychoanalysis, which seeks the truth lodged in the unconscious. from the knowledge produced in the university, which according to his conception had the tendency to replace the doctrine of the church. University knowledge would act in the name of a knowledge instead of producing knowledge. The university, according to Lacan’s view, would be a kind of tyranic system founded on an ideal pedagogic relation. Lacan always questioned the conditions that would allow the transmission of the Freudian knowledge and was convinced that the university was not a place to favor it.

Up to 1947, psychology had no autonomy but was a part of philosophy in the French universities. In that year, the licentiate in psychology in the Facultes des Lettres et Sciences Humaines was established and, through this act, the autonomy of psychology was recognized at the university level.

Nevertheless, it was only in 1965 at the Sorbonne that the psychology section gained autonomy from philosophy.

The fact that there was, and still is, no guild of psychologists, dates from the history of France. In 1792, in the course of the French Revolution, corporations were extinguished. No professional groups as such were recognized – that is, until the Vichy regime legalized certain professions and created, among others, the Guild of Medical Doctors, Lawyers, Pharmacists, and Architects.

FRANKL, VIKTOR EMIL (1905-1997), Austrian psychiatrist.

...In contrast to the atheistic existentialists (e. g., Sartre, Camus, and de Beauvoir) who claimed that life has no meaning, Frankl, as a religious existentialist, believed that one must create meaning in life. Such meaning is unique and specific: it can and must be fulfilled by a person and only by the individual person. Although meaning may vary from person to person and from moment to moment, Frankl described three kinds of values that could be actualized in order to create meaning in one’s life: creative values, experiential values, and attitudinal values.

Frankl’s brother, parents, and wife were killed in the death camps. He himself found meaning in his own concentration camp experience by choosing to help other prisoners find meaning in the final moments of their lives.

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