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Encyclopedia of Psychology Alan E. Kazdin, PhD, Editor-in-Chief

FORGETTING

Most modern theories of forgetting, therefore, essentially boil down to theories of response competition. The cues that are available when we want to remember are often predictive of many things, including things that happen just before or just after the learning of target material, and remembering “correctly” depends on our choosing the right potential response out of many This means that forgetting is best viewed as a kind of discrimination failure-we always recover some kind of memory when we try to remember, but it may be the “wrong” memory, one that does not help us much in the task at hand. One of the advantages of viewing forgetting in this way is that it helps to explain why memory often seems to fluctuate over time.

FOSTER CARE

...This trend changed again in the mid-1980s as increases in neglect, parental drug addiction, illness, physical and emotional abuse, and the decay of traditional families led to increasing numbers of children being placed in foster care. As a result, children were entering foster care with more severe physical and psychological problems. In addition, children of color were coming into foster care in increasing numbers that were out of proportion to their representation in the general population, which raised significant social concerns.

In 1986, 280,000 children were in foster care. By 1994. those numbers had risen to 494,000. The US. Department of Health and Human Services estimated that by the late 1990s 700.000 children a year had spent some time in foster care.

The increasing numbers of children entering foster care and a shortage of foster families has led to the development of alternatives to traditional foster care. None has received more attention than formal kinship care, placing children with relatives who are supervised by the public child welfare agency.

At present, there is no indication that children in kinship care fare better than children in traditional foster care, though it is clear that kinship care is one important practical approach to expanding the resources available to children in need.

FRANCE

Binet was a promoter of experimental psychology in France. It was he who declared, “One always has to welcome the facts that stand in opposition to our theories.”

Binet analyzed the intellectual processes, establishing two kinds, the subjective and the objective.

Dumas, who was rather against psychoanalysis and Freudian theory, based his outlook on the postulates of Claude Bernard. such as that there was an identity between the normal and pathological mechanism within the organism.

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