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Encyclopedia of Psychology Alan E. Kazdin, PhD, Editor-in-Chief

CALKINS, MARY WHITON (1863-1930), American psychologist and philosopher. An eminent psychologist and philosopher and the first woman elected president of both the American Psychological Association (in 1905) and the American Philosophical Association (in 1918), Mary W. Calkins devoted most of her career to developing, defending, and promoting a system of self- psychology. From the time she first presented her system in 1900 until her death in 1930 she became increasingly convinced that the proper subject matter of the science of psychology was the self in relation to its social and physical environment.

Furthermore, the kind of introspectionist psychology she espoused was personalstudying conscious, experiencing beings-rather than impersonal-ignoring the self to focus on, for example, the contents of consciousness or ideas. Finally, she allied herself with a strictly psychological rather than biological approach to personalistic psychology, insisting that the self is not constituted by a body, but rather that the self has a body.

CANADA. With an area of nearly 4 million square miles. Canada is the world s second largest country, after Russia.

Canada was populated by indigenous, aboriginal peoples before the seventeenth century, with subsequent European colonization by two “charter” or founding groups: the French, beginning in the early seventeenth century, and later the English, who militarily defeated the French in 1759.

In the 1990s. more than 30% of Canada’s population reported ethnic backgrounds other than English or French.

Tags: encyclopedia of psychology
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