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Encyclopedia of Psychology Alan E. Kazdin, PhD, Editor-in-Chief

BROCA, PAUL (1824-1880)

He was highly respected for his intellect and his sincerity, and his contributions spanned an impressive array of disciplines, including neurology, neuroanatomy, comparative anatomy, human evolution, pathology, statistics, oncology, and therapeutics. He published more than 500 scientific articles, founded the Parisian Societe d’ Anthropologie. and was instrumental in merging laboratory science with medicine.

In the 1870s, Broca noted that many recently unearthed Cro-Magnon specimens had cranial capacities that far exceeded those of the nineteenth-century Parisians who were studying them. The great size of the Cro-Magnon craniums, he pointed out, is due to the excessive development of the posterior brain, which is not a reliable indicator of intelligence.

He was elected to the French senate in 1879 but died from heart disease one year later. There he was responsible for only one memorandum, and in it he argued for opening the public high schools to women.

BRONFENBRENNER, URIE (1917- ), American psychologist.

His interviews in the Soviet Union in the 1960s provided the raw material for his book, Two Worlds of Childhood. widely regarded as a classic in the field of cross-cultural studies. His intimate knowledge of the Soviet Union led to a series of reports on Soviet perceptions of the United States, which led to his appointment on the scientific advisory committee of the U.S. Arms Control Agency

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