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Encyclopedia of Psychology Alan E. Kazdin, PhD, Editor-in-Chief

BRIEF THERAPY

Is Brief Therapy Effective?
Reviews of the effectiveness of brief therapy point out that the vast majority of studies in the outcome literature have investigated treatments of short duration, making the outcome literature a virtual testimonial to the effectiveness of brief work.

BRITISH ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE.

The BA first awarded grants for primarily psychological topics in 1909-1911 for research on mental and muscular fatigue, an enduring research topic in British psychology in the first part of the 1900s; in 1917 it awarded grants for an influential program of work on psychological war research. The grant was for only £10 but covered work on mental tests of industrial fatigue, alcoholism, evidence and rumor, the efficacy of thrift posters, and other issues.

BROADBENT, DONALD E. (1926-1993). British experimental psychologist

His most influential publication was his 1958 book Perception and Communication, in which he laid out his ideas on the structure of the cognitive system. To capture the observation that people are consciously aware of only a limited amount of information at any given time, Broadbent proposed that the structural correlate of awareness was a limited-capacity channel, dealing with bits of information in the information-theory sense. This central channel was preceded by a selective filter that could be tuned to one of many competing input channels: a particular voice, for example, or a page of text. Unattended information was held briefly in an appropriate sensory memory store preceding the filter, but this information decayed rapidly and was lost unless it was selected in time. Finally, the central channel interacted quickly and easily with long-term memory, a relatively permanent store of knowledge and contingencies.

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