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Encyclopedia of Psychology Alan E. Kazdin, PhD, Editor-in-Chief

BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLPOGY

Currently, biological psychology encompasses four main aspects: biological mechanisms of behavior: the development of behavior and its biological mechanisms over the life span: the evolution of behavior and its biological mechanisms: and applications, which entail both tests of the adequacy of formulations and use of findings to benefit health and quality of life (Rosenzweig, Leiman, & Breedlove, 1999)

Combined and abridged as Mental and Moral Science (1868), this was the major textbook of psychology in Great Britain for almost 50 years. Among other anticipations of later work, Bain suggested that memory formation involves growth of what we now call synaptic junctions: for every act of memory, every exercise of bodily aptitude, every habit, recollection, train of ideas. there is a specific grouping or coordination of sensations and movements, by virtue of specific growths in the cell junctions. (1872, p. 91)

Thus William James (1890) speculated that learning is related to anatomical changes at neural junctions, as did neurobiologists Eugenio Tanzi (1893), Santiago Ramon y Cajal (Cajal, 1894), and Charles Sherrington (Foster & Sherrington, 1897). In the same publication, Sherrington proposed the term “synapses” for these junctions (Foster & Sherrington, 1897,p . 929)


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