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Encyclopedia of Psychology Alan E. Kazdin, PhD, Editor-in-Chief

BENUSSI, VITTORIO (1878-1927)

With the publication of his volume Psychologie der Zeitauffassung (1913), Benussi gave rise to the field of experimental psychology of time perception, and he demonstrated that the subjective distortions of our perceptions of the flow of time always consist of temporal contractions and not of dilations.

By employing respiratory analysis in an innovative and original manner, Benussi observed that when a subject bears witness in the presence of a large audience, the respiratory correlates-obtained by calculating the inhalation-exhalation time ratio would differ considerably according to whether the subject was aware of lying or aware of stating the truth.

Moreover, in 1927 Benussi advocated the functional autonomy of emotion, namely, the complete independence of the emotional and affective functions from the intellectual functions, on both conscious and unconscious levels.

In this context, he coined the term negative hallucination to describe a phenomenon he observed in hypnotized subjects-namely, that they “annulled” or failed to perceive objects in their visual fields considering this to be a sensorial equivalent of the psycho- analytic mechanism of repression.

BEREAVEMENT

A contrasting view sees the death as opening a period of transition in the mourner’s life. This is a process that changes people, the way they live, and the way they see themselves in the world. They do not recover. they accommodate (Silverman, 1966, 1978, 1981, 1986. 2000).

BERKELEY, GEORGE (1685-1753)

Berkeley’s famous conclusion was Esse est percipi: To be is to be perceived.


Tags: encyclopedia of psychology
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