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Encyclopedia of Psychology Alan E. Kazdin, PhD, Editor-in-Chief

BALTIC COUNTRIES

Lithuania

Psychology had its beginnings in Lithuania in the sixteenth century. In I507 psychology was first introduced into the curriculum of the Dominican Monastery School in Lithuania. In 1571, a Scotsman, Ioannes Hay, taught psychology at the Vilnius Jesuit College and later it was also taught in other schools

By the mid-eighteenth century animastica (scholastic psychology) had faded away and psychology became devoted entirely to metaphysics. The works of Ch. von Wolff (Psyckologia empirica, Frankfurt 1732; Psyckologia rationalis, Frankfurt, 1734) were used as textbooks. The theories of Rene Descartes and John Locke were also taught.

BARKER, ROGER G. (1903-1990), American developmental psychologist.

...Barker described himself as “a naturalist, investigating relations between persons, environments, and behavior as they occur, without input from me as investigator.” He was troubled by the fact that psychologists, despite a century of research and theory, knew little more than laypeople about the naturally occurring frequency and distribution of psychological phenomena, about behavior outside psychological laboratories, clinics, testing rooms, and interview sites.

With Paul V. Gump, Barker conducted an influential study of the effects of high school size on student behavior. Their report, Big School, Small School (Stanford, CA, 1964), showed that students in small schools participate much more actively and responsibly in the voluntary, extra-curricular activities of the school than students in large schools, a finding that has been confirmed in studies of churches, business organizations, and experimental groups.

He discovered that the ecological environment consists of highly structured, well-organized phenomena that require serious investigation on their own merit quite apart from their connections with behavior.

Barker concluded that important questions about environments and their relations to human behavior and experience could not be answered by the traditional methods of psychological science.

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