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Encyclopedia of Psychology Alan E. Kazdin, PhD, Editor-in-Chief

BALDWIN, JAMES MARK

Baldwin (1895) discerned a prelogical phase (based on imagination and memory), a logical phase (based on reasoning; concurrent with language acquisition), and a hyperlogical phase (based on flexible processes of problem solving transcending syllogistic reasoning) in the development of the child’s mind. Baldwin (1897) provided a complementary overview of the social development of the child’s personality. The child passes through a projective stage (in which the child recognizes the differences between people and inanimate objects): a subjective stage (in which the child becomes aware of his or her own body as distinct from the bodies of others): and an ejective stage (in which the child infers that people have experiences in their bodies similar to his or her own)

His conception of organic evolution has recently become influential in cognitive psychology (Turney, Whitley, & Anderson 1996).

BALTIC COUNTRIES

By the end of the nineteenth century, graduates of Tartu University had written 14 dissertations on psychological topics. Chizh himself studied mental disorders among Russian prostitutes, concluding that they were more stable mentally than the general population


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