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Encyclopedia of Psychology Alan E. Kazdin, PhD, Editor-in-Chief

AVOIDANCE LEARNING

Thus, an active avoidance response depends on two competing processes, the thalamomotor GO system and the hippocampal STOP system. In essence, the hippocampus, which integrates information from a variety of sources, maintains veto power over the production of the avoidance response by the less well-informed thalamomotor system.

BACK-TRANSLATION.

Cross-cultural studies often involve the need to communicate with people in languages other than the researchers’ own (Brislin, 1993). Back-translation is one tool in the arsenal of methods for cross-cultural research (Van de Vijver & Leung, 1997).

If the original English phrase is “interactions with my brother,” this cannot be translated into Japanese or Chinese. These languages have different terms for “older brother” and “younger brother,” but no term that encompasses both.

BACON, FRANCIS (1561-1626)

First, he urged that the language of science be divorced from the languages of common sense and speculative metaphysics. Using the metaphor of “idols” to characterize preconceptions that block the road to scientific truth, he warned against the idols of the marketplace-the use of vernacular concepts that draw unreal distinctions-and the idols of the theater-systems of philosophical speculation that, like stage sets, create coherent but unreal worlds.

Under the motto that knowledge is power, Bacon’s scientific utopia New Atlantis (1627) depicted a technologically advanced society governed by the scientists of Salomon’s House, an institution that became the model for the Royal Society of London and presaged the advent of state-supported science and the modern research university

Reinforced by America’s indigenous pragmatism, these ideals inspired psychologists as diverse as G. Stanley Hall, James McKeen Cattell, and B. F. Skinner, and set the context for the widespread definition of psychology’s goal as the prediction and control of human behavior.

Tags: encyclopedia of psychology
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