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Encyclopedia of Psychology Alan E. Kazdin, PhD, Editor-in-Chief

AUSTRALIA

All but 2 of Australia’s 38 universities are public institutions. Of the two private universities, one is supported by the Roman Catholic Church.

All grants are peer reviewed, the Matthew principle being much in evidence (“For whosoever hath, to him shall be given, and he shall have more abundance,” Matthew 13:12). This is not surprising, since the guidelines to reviewers ask that the track record of the applicant should be taken into account, but it does constitute somewhat of a Catch-22 for beginners.

The organizational infrastructure is now well established, supports both basic and applied work, and represents the interests of the profession to government and the public

AUSTRIA

However, the European Union’s requirement for social, economic, and legal harmony amongst its states will inevitably reform the system.

Upon losing their century-long supremacy in Germany, the Habsburg dynasty shifted its focus to the south-central and southeastern European territories, and established the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy (Osterreichisch-Ungarische Doppelmonarchie, 1867-1918). Formally, this dual monarchy consisted of (I) the kingdom of Hungary, and (2) the “rest of the Habsburg lands” (incorrectly known as the Austrian empire”). In reality, it was an assembly of culturally and ethnically diversed regions united by a few common denominators (mainly foreign, defense, and economic policies) that faced growing nationalist movements.

After a civil war with the Social Democrats in 1934, the ruling Christian Democrats formed an authoritarian regime (Austro-Facism) which faced increasing political pressure from Hitler’s Nazi Germany, Despite these political and economic difficulties, the Jewish-influenced German-speaking bourgeoisie maintained strong connections with the new states across the borders and, especially, between Vienna and Prague.

Austria finally became independent in 1955. It declared its “perpetual neutrality,” a cornerstone of Austrian politics and a key element of the new Austrian identity

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