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Alfred Adler (7 фев 1870 — 28 мая 1937) Über den nervösen Charakter Wien 1912

Praktischer Teil

I. Kapitel.

Geiz. — Misstrauen. — Neid. — Grausamkeit. — Herabsetzende Kritik des Nervösen. — Neurotische Apperzeption. — Altersneurosen. — Formen- und Intensitätswandel der Fiktion. — Organjargon.

Ich will zuerst von Charakterzügen sprechen, die sich mit gewisser Regelmässigkeit bei allen Nervösen nachweisen lassen, und die in der Weise zum Ausdruck kommen, dass der Patient mit grosser Gier, direkt oder auf Umwegen, bewusst oder unbewusst, durch zweckmässiges Denken und Handeln, oder durch das Arrangement von Symptomen nach vermehrtem Besitz, nach Vergrösserung seiner Macht und seines Einflusses, nach Herabsetzung anderer Personen und Verkürzung derselben strebt. Meist finden sich alle diese Formen des Eigennutzes beisammen und erst nach besserer Einsicht erkennt man das gewaltige Überwiegen der Umwege, durch die der Patient sich und seine Umgebung täuscht. Er täuscht auch die Wissenschaft.

примечания к английскому изданию

Lewandowsky, Max

(1876 – 1918): Neurologist, lecturer of psychology, became professor in 1909, in 1910 he founded (with Alzheimer) the ‘Zeitschrift für die gesamte Neurologie und Psychiatrie’, and edited the ‘Handbuch der Neurologie’ between 1910-14. On the subject of shell-shock he writes (among others): ‘The patients develop a neurosis in order to bring themselves in safety.’ His argumentation for a ‘purely psychic cause’ of shell-shock is founded on the concepts ‘flight into disease (Freud)’ and ‘desire for disease (Bonhoeffer)’ (1917). Adler extensively quotes Lewandowsky in his work on shell-shock of 1918/20, with reference to the 1917 article (though erroneously dated by Adler as 1913). Lewandowsky’s position was similar, among others concerning the analysis of shell-shock as a desire for security. See Adler’s article: Die neuen Gesichtspunkte in der Frage der Kriegsneurose.

a kind of economy of thought;

the principle of least resistance See endnote b’ to R. Avenarius and Ernst Mach on page xiii. Vaihinger puts both under the heading of ‘biologic epistemology’: ‘Thought processes are not only subjected to the general laws governing life’s events but indeed this experiential material is, by means of a concrete ‘economy’, transformed and made useful for life.’ There he also raises the problem of the ‘principle of the unity of the psyche’ with reference to the ‘the least amount of exertion according to Avenarius.’

Steinach, Eugen

(1861 – 1944): Physiologist and endocrinologist. Between 1906-18 he was leader of the laboratory of general and comparative physiology and professor in Prague, from 1912 director of the department of physiology at the biological research institute (the socalled ‘vivarium’) at the university of Vienna, 1938 he emigrated to Switzerland. His research was concerned in particular with the physiology of the sexual organs, such as the transplantation of heterologous sexual glands, and he performed operations to ‘change’ homosexuals, for which M. Hirschfeld (see endnote ‘p’ on page 146) occasionally provided him with patients. Steinach’s operations were also supposed to stimulate rejuvenation. In 1922 Freud also underwent one of these operations, in order to prevent the reoccurence of cancer.

Schmidt, Rudolf (1873 – 1947): See endnote ‘dd’ on page 23. Lingua scrotalis (or plicata) is a congenital wrinkled or folded tongue (scrotalis refers to the scrotum). Adler refers to the following passage in Schmidt: ‘We talk about “signs of degeneration”, but it would be better to speak of “developmental disorders”. They can, although they do not have to, be accompanied by deficiencies in the higher psychic functions.

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