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Encyclopedia of Psychology Alan E. Kazdin, PhD, Editor-in-Chief

ATTENTION-DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER

The complexity, multiplicity, and persistence of the difficulties that define ADHD dictate multimodal therapies and systematic monitoring of a broad range of possible treatment effects, both intended and unintended. But even if maximally efficacious treatments were available, questions would remain about the feasibility as well as the desirability of normalizing the behaviors of people with ADHD. For these individuals, life is full of provocation ecologies that highlight or exacerbate their difficulties. But there are also ecologies in which their energetic action, rapid decision making, risk taking, and imperviousness to consequences could serve adaptive functions. Perhaps one of the greatest challenges for society posed by people with ADHD is to facilitate the process of “niche-picking’’ so that some of these behavioral differences can function more as assets than as liabilities for the individual as well as the social group.

Hallowell, E. M., & Ratey, J. J. (1994). Answers to distraction. New York Bantam Books. Written in a question-andanswer format for nonprofessional audiences, this book addresses the most common questions asked about ADHD. The authors, both psychiatrists who have been diagnosed with attention deficit disorder, also provide a compendium of tips for the management of ADHD and a list of community, professional, and government resources.

ATTITUDES: An Overview

A broad range of subjective constructs including beliefs, feelings, evaluations, and response tendencies have often been referred to as attitudes. However, within contemporary psychological research, the term attitude is typically used to refer to a relatively general and enduring evaluation of some object, person, group, or concept along a dimension ranging from negative to positive. Thus, attitudes are global evaluations that can be differentiated from specific beliefs and emotions. Attitudes provide summary evaluations of objects and are often assumed to be derived from specific beliefs, emotions, and past behaviors associated with those objects.


Tags: encyclopedia of psychology
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