papalagi (papalagi) wrote,

Encyclopedia of Psychology Alan E. Kazdin, PhD, Editor-in-Chief


Atkinson, Morten, and Sue (1983) have developed a model of ethnic identity formation specific to Asian Americans that is based on clinical experience. This model is also a stage theory framework in that there is a sequential progression in which individuals experience specific conflicts that must be resolved in order to move to the next stage. The first stage involves the notion of conformity; the second stage involves dissonance, confusion, and conflict over the dominant culture’s system, and an awareness of one’s own cultural system. A resistance and immersion period is followed by a period of introspection or questioning of both the minority and majority cultures. Finally, individuals achieve a synergy of articulation and awareness that involves the resolution of conflicts in previous stages and the development of a cultural identity.


Gall, in his own writings, claims that at the age of nine he discovered his theory of brain localization. A friend of his at school was very good at memorization, and he had bulging eyes. Gall decided that his friend’s bulging eyes were due to overdeveloped frontal lobes, and thus was born Gall’s theory of phrenology (Finger, 1994)

Darwin’s revolutionary ideas sparked an interest in his cousin, Francis Galton (1822-1911). Galton was particularly interested in the social aspects of natural selection, and his experiments led him to believe in the overwhelming effects of inheritance upon intelligence. This led him to suggest that “eminent” people should be encouraged to reproduce whereas less eminent people should be discouraged from reproduction. In order to develop and test his theory of eugenics (enhancing the human race by selective breeding), Galton opened up a booth at a health exhibition in London in 1884. In two years, he tested 9,337 people from ages 5 to 80 years old. He measured most of them on 17 variables, primarily physical characteristics, but also perceptual acuity and memory. Galton’s analysis of the data led him to the discovery of the foundations of the correlation coefficient

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