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Encyclopedia of Psychology Alan E. Kazdin, PhD, Editor-in-Chief

APPLIED BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS

What is ”radical” about radical behaviorism is not that it is extreme but that it applies behavioral reasoning to scientists themselves and thus to the epistemological basis of the field. Radical behaviorism rejects traditional dividing lines between what is scientific and what is not (e.g., it rejects the idea that scientific observations must be publicly agreed upon) in favor of contingency analysis (does the scientist have a history that brings observations under appropriate stimulus control).

APPRENTICESHIP

Psychological Theory and Research

Influenced by the English publication in 1978 of Vygotsky’s Mind in Society, modern sociocognitive theory views learning as collaborative, situated, and distributed (Greeno, Collins, & Resnick, 1996). In this perspective, learning is a social activity and learners participate in thinking and problem solving just beyond their competence or “zone of proximal development” with the assistance of more experienced members of the community (Vygotsky, 19 78). In Social Foundations of Thought and Action (1986), Albert Bandura also emphasized social aspects of learning through internalization of models. In Apprenticeship in Thinking, Barbara Rogoff (1992) extended the work of Vygotsky and Bandura, positing that cognitive processes are integrated with, rather than products of, sociocultural activities.

Studies of apprenticeship outside formal schooling contexts have led researchers to call into question what school teaches. In the Psychology of Literacy (1981), Scribner and Cole speculated that schools may promote didactic use of language rather than the discourse of practice.

Tags: encyclopedia of psychology
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